Game Of Go
Play the Game of Go App online with anyone, anywhere, anytime. ** Want to know how to play GO? **. The Game of GO App finally makes it. Übersetzung im Kontext von „the game of Go“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: Perhaps the surprising fact is that Conway was not trying to develop. Go ist ein strategisches Brettspiel für zwei Spieler. Das Spiel stammt ursprünglich aus dem antiken China und hat im Laufe der Geschichte eine besondere Prägung in Japan, Korea und Taiwan erhalten. Erst seit dem Jahrhundert fand Go auch.
Übersetzung für "the game of Go" im DeutschGo (chinesisch 圍棋 / 围棋, Pinyin wéiqí, Jyutping wai4kei4*2; japanisch 囲碁 igo; koreanisch hat ein von Erik van der Werf von der „Computer Games Group“ der Universität Maastricht geschriebenes Computer-Programm namens. According to chess master Emanuel Lasker: "The rules of Go are so elegant, organic, and Go is an ancient Chinese/Japanese board game. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Das Spiel von GO/weigi/IGO/bezeichnet - 19x19 Goban/Go-Brett bei eBay. Kostenlose Lieferung für viele Artikel!
Game Of Go Consider these available items VideoAlphaGo - The Movie - Full Documentary A key concept in the tactics of Go, though not part of the rules, is the classification of groups of stones into alive, dead or unsettled. At the end of the game, groups that cannot avoid being captured during normal play are removed as captures. These stones are dead. Groups can reach this state much earlier during play; a group of stones can quickly run out of options so that further play to save them is fruitless, or even detrimental. Go, (Japanese), also called i-go, Chinese (Pinyin) weiqi or (Wade-Giles romanization) wei-ch’i, Korean baduk or pa-tok, board game for two players. Of East Asian origin, it is popular in China, Korea, and especially Japan, the country with which it is most closely identified. Go, probably the world’s oldest board game, is thought to have originated in China some 4, years ago. Go is a game where two players contest for territory; it is perhaps the oldest board game in the world. The rules are simple and you can learn them in minutes. Many enthusiasts regard Go as an art; the game's almost infinite variations stumped even the most advanced computers until recently. The object of go is to control more territory than your opponent. At the end of the game, the player who controls the more territory wins the game. We are going to show you how territory is formed in a game on a 9x9 board. Although go is usually played on a 19x19 board, it can also be played on a 9x9 board, or any size board from 5x5 up. Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. The game was invented in China more than 2, years ago and is believed to be the oldest board game continuously played to the present day. With thousands of years Г¶zil Deutschland patient practice, China has birthed a philosophical approach to life's unending quandaries. Auch wird zumeist auf westlichen Tischen und Sesseln gespielt. Still not convinced?? Die Steine sind zumeist aus Glas, die Dosen aus Plastik. Main article: Go opening. Go begins with an empty board. Moves can reasonably be attributed some definite value, Ich, Tom Horn as 20 points or fewer, rather than simply being necessary to compete. In China, the game is traditionally played with single-convex stones  made of a composite called Yunzi. Because go lends itself to a uniquely reliable system of handicaps, players of widely disparate strengths can enjoy relatively even contests. Please try again later. Notice the nine marked points. See also: Go competitions. Go for Beginners. Many in the field of artificial intelligence consider Go to require more elements that mimic human thought than chess. If White extends to 1 in Patience Deutsch 23, he increases his liberties to three but Black pursues him with 2 and, after 4, White is at the end of his Green Bay Packers Super Bowl he has no way to increase his liberties.
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In Echtzeit zahlen Sie per Game Of Go Geld auf Game Of Go Spielerkonto. - Stöbern in KategorienEinflussorientierte Spieler antizipieren Kämpfe in ihrem Einflussgebiet, also in für sie vorteilhaften Inferno Spiel.
No large weak groups are still in serious danger. Moves can reasonably be attributed some definite value, such as 20 points or fewer, rather than simply being necessary to compete.
Both players set limited objectives in their plans, in making or destroying territory, capturing or saving stones.
These changing aspects of the game usually occur at much the same time, for strong players. In brief, the middlegame switches into the endgame when the concepts of strategy and influence need reassessment in terms of concrete final results on the board.
In China, Go was considered one of the four cultivated arts of the Chinese scholar gentleman , along with calligraphy , painting and playing the musical instrument guqin  In ancient times the rules of go were passed on verbally, rather than being written down.
Go was introduced to Korea sometime between the 5th and 7th centuries CE, and was popular among the higher classes. Sunjang baduk became the main variant played in Korea until the end of the 19th century, when the current version was reintroduced from Japan.
It became popular at the Japanese imperial court in the 8th century,  and among the general public by the 13th century.
In , Tokugawa Ieyasu re-established Japan's unified national government. Despite its widespread popularity in East Asia, Go has been slow to spread to the rest of the world.
Although there are some mentions of the game in western literature from the 16th century forward, Go did not start to become popular in the West until the end of the 19th century, when German scientist Oskar Korschelt wrote a treatise on the ancient Han Chinese game.
In , Edward Lasker learned the game while in Berlin. Two years later, in , the German Go Association was founded.
World War II put a stop to most Go activity, since it was a game coming from Japan, but after the war, Go continued to spread.
Both astronauts were awarded honorary dan ranks by the Nihon Ki-in. In Go, rank indicates a player's skill in the game.
Traditionally, ranks are measured using kyu and dan grades,  a system also adopted by many martial arts. More recently, mathematical rating systems similar to the Elo rating system have been introduced.
Dan grades abbreviated d are considered master grades, and increase from 1st dan to 7th dan. First dan equals a black belt in eastern martial arts using this system.
The difference among each amateur rank is one handicap stone. For example, if a 5k plays a game with a 1k, the 5k would need a handicap of four stones to even the odds.
Top-level amateur players sometimes defeat professionals in tournament play. These ranks are separate from amateur ranks. Tournament and match rules deal with factors that may influence the game but are not part of the actual rules of play.
Such rules may differ between events. Rules that influence the game include: the setting of compensation points komi , handicap, and time control parameters.
Rules that do not generally influence the game are: the tournament system, pairing strategies, and placement criteria.
Common tournament systems used in Go include the McMahon system ,  Swiss system , league systems and the knockout system.
Tournaments may combine multiple systems; many professional Go tournaments use a combination of the league and knockout systems.
A game of Go may be timed using a game clock. Formal time controls were introduced into the professional game during the s and were controversial.
Go tournaments use a number of different time control systems. All common systems envisage a single main period of time for each player for the game, but they vary on the protocols for continuation in overtime after a player has finished that time allowance.
The top professional Go matches have timekeepers so that the players do not have to press their own clocks. Two widely used variants of the byoyomi system are: .
Go games are recorded with a simple coordinate system. This is comparable to algebraic chess notation , except that Go stones do not move and thus require only one coordinate per turn.
Coordinate systems include purely numerical point , hybrid K3 , and purely alphabetical. The Japanese word kifu is sometimes used to refer to a game record.
In Unicode, Go stones can be represented with black and white circles from the block Geometric Shapes :. The block Miscellaneous Symbols includes "Go markers"  that were likely meant for mathematical research of Go:  .
A Go professional is a professional player of the game of Go. Although the game was developed in China, the establishment of the Four Go houses by Tokugawa Ieyasu at the start of the 17th century shifted the focus of the Go world to Japan.
State sponsorship, allowing players to dedicate themselves full-time to study of the game, and fierce competition between individual houses resulted in a significant increase in the level of play.
During this period, the best player of his generation was given the prestigious title Meijin master and the post of Godokoro minister of Go.
Of special note are the players who were dubbed Kisei Go Sage. After the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration period, the Go houses slowly disappeared, and in , the Nihon Ki-in Japanese Go Association was formed.
Top players from this period often played newspaper-sponsored matches of 2—10 games. For much of the 20th century, Go continued to be dominated by players trained in Japan.
After his return to Korea, the Hanguk Kiwon Korea Baduk Association was formed and caused the level of play in South Korea to rise significantly in the second half of the 20th century.
With the advent of major international titles from onward, it became possible to compare the level of players from different countries more accurately.
His disciple Lee Chang-ho was the dominant player in international Go competitions for more than a decade spanning much of s and early s; he is also credited with groundbreaking works on the endgame.
As of [update] , Japan lags behind in the international Go scene. Historically, more men than women have played Go. Special tournaments for women exist, but until recently, men and women did not compete together at the highest levels; however, the creation of new, open tournaments and the rise of strong female players, most notably Rui Naiwei , have in recent years highlighted the strength and competitiveness of emerging female players.
The level in other countries has traditionally been much lower, except for some players who had preparatory professional training in East Asia.
A famous player of the s was Edward Lasker. In , Manfred Wimmer became the first Westerner to receive a professional player's certificate from an East Asian professional Go association.
It is possible to play Go with a simple paper board and coins, plastic tokens, or white beans and coffee beans for the stones; or even by drawing the stones on the board and erasing them when captured.
More popular midrange equipment includes cardstock, a laminated particle board , or wood boards with stones of plastic or glass. More expensive traditional materials are still used by many players.
The most expensive Go sets have black stones carved from slate and white stones carved from translucent white shells, played on boards carved in a single piece from the trunk of a tree.
Chinese boards are slightly larger, as a traditional Chinese Go stone is slightly larger to match. The board is not square; there is a ratio in length to width, because with a perfectly square board, from the player's viewing angle the perspective creates a foreshortening of the board.
The added length compensates for this. More recently, the related California Torreya Torreya californica has been prized for its light color and pale rings as well as its reduced expense and more readily available stock.
The natural resources of Japan have been unable to keep up with the enormous demand for the slow-growing Kaya trees; both T.
Other, less expensive woods often used to make quality table boards in both Chinese and Japanese dimensions include Hiba Thujopsis dolabrata , Katsura Cercidiphyllum japonicum , Kauri Agathis , and Shin Kaya various varieties of spruce , commonly from Alaska, Siberia and China's Yunnan Province.
However it may happen, especially in beginners' games, that many back-and-forth captures empty the bowls before the end of the game: in that case an exchange of prisoners allows the game to continue.
Traditional Japanese stones are double-convex, and made of clamshell white and slate black. In China, the game is traditionally played with single-convex stones  made of a composite called Yunzi.
The material comes from Yunnan Province and is made by sintering a proprietary and trade-secret mixture of mineral compounds derived from the local stone.
This process dates to the Tang Dynasty and, after the knowledge was lost in the s during the Chinese Civil War , was rediscovered in the s by the now state-run Yunzi company.
The term yunzi can also refer to a single-convex stone made of any material; however, most English-language Go suppliers specify Yunzi as a material and single-convex as a shape to avoid confusion, as stones made of Yunzi are also available in double-convex while synthetic stones can be either shape.
Traditional stones are made so that black stones are slightly larger in diameter than white; this is to compensate for the optical illusion created by contrasting colors that would make equal-sized white stones appear larger on the board than black stones.
The bowls for the stones are shaped like a flattened sphere with a level underside. Chinese bowls are slightly larger, and a little more rounded, a style known generally as Go Seigen ; Japanese Kitani bowls tend to have a shape closer to that of the bowl of a snifter glass, such as for brandy.
The bowls are usually made of turned wood. Mulberry is the traditional material for Japanese bowls, but is very expensive; wood from the Chinese jujube date tree, which has a lighter color it is often stained and slightly more visible grain pattern, is a common substitute for rosewood, and traditional for Go Seigen-style bowls.
Other traditional materials used for making Chinese bowls include lacquered wood, ceramics , stone and woven straw or rattan.
The names of the bowl shapes, Go Seigen and Kitani , were introduced in the last quarter of the 20th century by the professional player Janice Kim as homage to two 20th-century professional Go players by the same names, of Chinese and Japanese nationality, respectively, who are referred to as the "Fathers of modern Go".
The traditional way to place a Go stone is to first take one from the bowl, gripping it between the index and middle fingers, with the middle finger on top, and then placing it directly on the desired intersection.
It is considered respectful towards White for Black to place the first stone of the game in the upper right-hand corner. It is considered poor manners to run one's fingers through one's bowl of unplayed stones, as the sound, however soothing to the player doing this, can be disturbing to one's opponent.
Similarly, clacking a stone against another stone, the board, or the table or floor is also discouraged.
However, it is permissible to emphasize select moves by striking the board more firmly than normal, thus producing a sharp clack.
Additionally, hovering one's arm over the board usually when deciding where to play is also considered rude as it obstructs the opponent's view of the board.
Apart from the points above it also points to the need to remain calm and honorable, in maintaining posture, and knowing the key specialised terms, such as titles of common formations.
Generally speaking, much attention is paid to the etiquette of playing, as much as to winning or actual game technique.
In combinatorial game theory terms, Go is a zero-sum , perfect-information , partisan , deterministic strategy game , putting it in the same class as chess, draughts checkers , and Reversi Othello ; however it differs from these in its game play.
Although the rules are simple, the practical strategy is complex. The game emphasizes the importance of balance on multiple levels and has internal tensions.
To secure an area of the board, it is good to play moves close together; however, to cover the largest area, one needs to spread out, perhaps leaving weaknesses that can be exploited.
Playing too low close to the edge secures insufficient territory and influence, yet playing too high far from the edge allows the opponent to invade.
It has been claimed that Go is the most complex game in the world due to its vast number of variations in individual games.
Decisions in one part of the board may be influenced by an apparently unrelated situation in a distant part of the board. Plays made early in the game can shape the nature of conflict a hundred moves later.
The game complexity of Go is such that describing even elementary strategy fills many introductory books.
In fact, numerical estimates show that the number of possible games of Go far exceeds the number of atoms in the observable universe.
Research of go endgame by John H. Conway led to the invention of the surreal numbers. Go long posed a daunting challenge to computer programmers , putting forward "difficult decision-making tasks, an intractable search space, and an optimal solution so complex it appears infeasible to directly approximate using a policy or value function".
Many in the field of artificial intelligence consider Go to require more elements that mimic human thought than chess. The reasons why computer programs had not played Go at the professional dan level prior to include: .
As an illustration, the greatest handicap normally given to a weaker opponent is 9 stones. It was not until August that a computer won a game against a professional level player at this handicap.
It was the Mogo program, which scored this first victory in an exhibition game played during the US Go Congress.
In March , Google next challenged Lee Sedol , a 9 dan considered the top player in the world in the early 21st century,  to a five-game match.
Leading up to the game, Lee Sedol and other top professionals were confident that he would win;  however, AlphaGo defeated Lee in four of the five games.
In October , DeepMind announced a significantly stronger version called AlphaGo Zero which beat the previous version by games to 0. An abundance of software is available to support players of the game.
This includes programs that can be used to view or edit game records and diagrams, programs that allow the user to search for patterns in the games of strong players, and programs that allow users to play against each other over the Internet.
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The Baby Hazel series is incredibly popular. Next, the moves at White 28 and 30 each reduce Black's territory by one point.
Black 31 ataris the two white stones at 26 and 30, so White must connect at 32 to save them. Finally, Black 33 reduces White's territory on the left by one point.
The game ends when White blocks at Figure 12 show what the board looks like at the end of this game. White has one black stone in his prisoner pile, while Black has two white stones in his.
In Figure 13, each side places his prisoners in his opponent's territory. White places his one black prisoner the marked black stone inside Black's territory and Black places his two white prisoners the two marked white stones inside White's territory.
It is customary to rearrange the stones a bit to make the counting of territory simple and rapid.
In Figure 14, the three marked black stones and the two marked white stones were moved. Calculation of the size of the territories can now be made at a glance.
Black has 23 points; White has 24 points. White wins by one point. Questions and Answers After White 12 in Figure 8, why didn't Black try to escape with his marked stone?
Black could try to escape by playing 1 in Diagram 22, but White would pursue him and the black stones would still be in atari.
If Black persists with 3,he can atari the marked white stone, but White captures three stones by taking Black's last liberty with 4.
Why doesn't White try this? The reason he doesn't try to escape is because he can't, unless Black blunders.
If White extends to 1 in Diagram 23, he increases his liberties to three but Black pursues him with 2 and, after 4, White is at the end of his rope: he has no way to increase his liberties.
If White plays 5, Black ataris with 6 and captures with 8. However, Black must not play 2 from the outside as in Diagram White would then turn at 3 and now the two marked black stones have only two liberties, while the white group on the right has three liberties.
White captures the two marked stones with 5 and 7. Is Black 25 in Figure10 necessary? It certainly is. If Black omitted this move, White would atari the marked black stone with 1 in Diagram If Black tries to run away with 2 and 4, White pursues him with 3 and 5, forcing the black stones into the corner where they run out of liberties.
White would then capture four black stones with 7. These are most of the rules of go. There is no simple procedure to turn a clear lead into a victory -- only continued good play.
The game rewards patience and balance over aggression and greed; the balance of influence and territory may shift many times in the course of a game, and a strong player must be prepared to be flexible but resolute.
Go thinking seems more lateral than linear, less dependent on logical deduction, and more reliant on a "feel" for the stones, a "sense" of shape, a gestalt perception of the game.
Beyond being merely a game, Go can take on other meanings to its devotees: an analogy for life, an intense meditation, a mirror of one's personality, and exercise in abstract reasoning, a mental "workout" or, when played well, a beautiful art in which black and white dance in delicate balance across the board.
But most important for all who play, Go, as a game, is challenging and fun. To learn more about why millions of people have loved this game for thousand of years, visit our Top Ten Reasons to Play Go ; or, if you prefer, start playing go right now!